Through increasing the brains processing speed, either through cybernetic implants which assist in processing or biological and genetic augments to the brains structure, the patient is then able to process more sensory information, faster. This alone gives a significant boost to the taking in and understanding of sensory information from the body. However, it does not need to stop there. Through bio-engineered enhancements to the actual nerve receptors of the body as well as the nerve pathways to the brain and the spinal column which transmit information, the patients ability to distinguish between different sensory inputs can be radically increased. What, to a normal person, might be an indistinguishable difference in temperature, sound, texture, vision, could become an obvious difference to someone with this enhancement.
This can also be specialized, bringing enhancement to a specific sense rather than all senses. This can sometimes achieve even higher attenuation to a specific sense than otherwise possible.